550 duck down jacket
This seems to hint at the source of the problem. A 550-fill quality of down will necessarily be coarser than higher grades of down. Coarser down will include more feathers with quills. Quills are far more prone to pierce the shell and work their way out.
Apparently, the recent demand for high quality goose down has created a shortage and some companies are substituting cheaper grades, including duck down and lower fill-numbered grades of down, as a way to keep production costs down. Sadly, the quality also suffers. Your jacket appears to be one of these.