Bob, from what I have learned, that woman needed to spend the time (and money) practicing how to use the weapon. Yes; weapon. I've burned through 2 canisters practicing myself. One when I first got them, and the second after it expired. If and when you need it, you will not want to be trying to figure out how to use the stuff.

Good news is that in black bear country you don't need bear spray...OK. Let me rephrase that. IN California, Arizona, Texas...the south west that is, you will not need bear spray. I'm not absolutely sure about other areas, and in Canada and Alaska, black bears are another thing to be on your toes about. Good camp habits and learning about bear behavior will be what you need.


ps I don't have any problem with bells, but in the Sierra Nevada of California you do not need them. Again, a clean camp will most likely keep you out of trouble.