backpacking, Backpacking, BACKPACKING, HIKING, Hiking, hiking|
I have an inclination to say JUST DO IT, but I cannot, because the backcountry can be a dangerous place, even for those who are experienced. Consequently, I recommend a few preliminary steps as you begin your backpacking adventures.
- Acquire Backpacking Knowledge thru reading:
- Acquire Knowledge & Experience thru Courses & Backcountry Organizations:
- Mountaineering, Backpacking, Hiking, offered by local governments, schools, and private outdoor groups.
- Join an Outdoor Club (Sierra Club, Mountaineers, Hiking Clubs, etc.). These groups provide a fast way to learn proven techniques & make friends who have similar interests.
- Get in Shape--Stay in Shape:
I recently heard someone referring to backpackers, in general, as having a T-REX SYNDROME. That is, obsession with exercising only the legs. In fact, it's important for hiking, and especially backpacking, that we have strong lower back, upper back, and abdominal muscles, in addition to strong legs. Find exercises that strengthen those muscles. For example, a rowing machine--as well as a machine like the Health Rider--will work the back, leg, and ab muscles. For those of us who get bored sitting on a machine, get a bicycle and rowboat.
I have found, however, that lifting weights, machine workouts, jogging, etc., is appropriate and very helpful, but for some reason, the only activity that really keeps me in shape for alpine hiking, backpacking, and scrambling--which is what I do--is hiking. You can find my method of staying in shape for year-around backpacking, here:
Here are some suggestions for getting in shape, staying in shape, and staying healthy:
Know your physical condition. Not just the "in shape" or "outta shape" question, but how's your heart--had a checkup lately ? Know as much as possible about your current condition before you even start an exercise program (if not already on one). That knowledge will also minimize potential problems in the backcountry. If you have a health condition, of any consequence, understand the implications and consequences of strenuous exercise and venturing into the backcountry, beforehand. If you haven't already, get the medical check-up, to find out--one way or the other--if you have anything to be concerned about. The backcountry is not the place for medical emergencies. There's no 911 out there !
Already in Shape ? If you exercise regularly, you may already be in good enough shape to tackle day hikes over easy to moderate terrain. However, walking (or jogging--not something I would do) on pavement is not the same as carrying a pack over a rough trail tread. My suggestion, is to first, at least, put on a pack loaded with 5 more pounds than you would be carrying on your hike, then truck around the neighborhood for a few miles to see how it feels. Next, plan a short hike to see how you fare on a trail with the pack on. Gradually, in addition to your regular exercise program, take more difficult hikes that keep challenging you as well as increasing your level of conditioning and endurance. This method is the least painful, if you will, because it leverages off of what you already have and gets you on the trail, immediately. What could be better, hiking yourself into hiking condition.
Not in Shape ? If you're not in good physical condition, you should take the time to set up a regular exercise program. It must be consistent and it must be a priority (or, guaranteed, you will not be consistent and you'll always be on the brink of getting in shape--but not quite). Hey, I bin there !
Just Start Somewhere. Swimming, Biking (human powered), Walking. It's good to have a variety of activities which exercise a variety of muscles. Machines are okay--Health Rider, Nordic Track, Stationary Bikes, Rowing Machines, Tread Mill--they all work okay, some better than others. I use a combination of Health Rider, free weights, and hiking to stay in shape. Somedays, I don't feel like sitting inside on a machine, so I just lift a few weights, then strap weights to my ankles and take a two mile walk. Point is, start a program you're comfortable with and stick to it on a consistent basis.
Anticipate Level of Difficulty, and Train Accordingly: You will put yourself and your fellow packers at risk, if you think you can wait til the trip and then get in shape on the trail. Two years ago, I went on a five-day trip with a group of Mountaineers. One of the people used to hike with his sons carrying 50 pounds of gear. He was fairly active, a skier and such, so thought he would be okay, based on past experiences. Thus, he went on the hike without training specifically for it. He lasted half a day. Couldn't go on--he was really hurtin. Had to go back to the trailhead and wait for us for four additional days (because he was one of the drivers). At least he didn't get hurt.
Moral: get in shape to carry your anticipated 40 pound load before the trip. Several weeks before a trip, I anticipate how much weight I will be carrying, then prepare a pack that weighs 10 pounds more than that. That, then, becomes my training pack for the next several weeks--about four or five nights a week--right up to two or three days before the trip. In addition, I continue with my normal exercising routine. That way, I'm confident I will be successful on the trail and that my fellow packers can count on me to be strong and healthy.
Stretching is important. Stretching muscles reduces muscle tension and allows better, more flexible movement. Prior to your daily workout, whether in the backcountry, or at home, take some time to stretch your lower back, legs, torso, neck, etc. If you're not sure how or what, do some research--there's plenty of material available on the subject. The point I want to make here is that stretching is necessary and will help prevent soreness and injury, both on and off the trail.
Prevent "Pack Lifting" Injury. Jerking a 35 pound (or more) pack off the ground and swinging it onto your back is a good way to injure your back. There's several popular, and safe, ways to do it. The one I use the most is to place my pack on the ground with shoulder harness facing me; next, I grab the shoulder straps--one in each hand--, and with straight to slightly bent back and slightly bent knees, I put my knee into the backpadding of the pack and pull the pack up my leg to the upper thigh. With my leg now under the pack for support, I slide my right arm thru the shoulder harness and then turn and do the same with my left arm. Next, I tighten the hip belt and proceed to secure pack as usual. This may have taken a lot of words to explain, but it's relatively fast and safe. Another method is to rest the pack on a tree stump or embankment and squat down to slip into the shoulder harness. Yet another method is to have someone hold the pack while you slip into the harness.
- Stay in Shape During the Winter:
Especially the older we get (I'm 65+), trying to "get in shape for the hiking season" results in significant physiological and psychological stress. Lack of commitment to physical conditioning is probably the main reason that many people, who otherwise enjoy hiking and backcountry activities, give it up. It can be hard work (and painful) especially if you are not in proper physical condition.
There are numerous ways to stay in shape, during the Winter. The first requisite, though, is to make it a priority, otherwise you probably won't find the time, at least not on a consistent basis.
My personal training regimen remains consistent throughout the year. I do leg, back, and neck stretches as well as abdominal exercises at least once and sometimes twice a day. Four or five times a week I exercise my leg and back muscles on a Health Rider machine (saw it advertised in Backpacker Mag.--don't regret getting one). I put 50 pounds of weight on it (under the seat) and proceed to do 200 to 400 reps. Let's see, that's 50 lbs + my 165 lbs = 215 lbs that my legs are pushing.
I also exercise arms and shoulders with 6.6 lb dumb-bells. Then, after the stretching & warmup exercises, I don a 30 pound pack, strap 5 lb weights on each ankle (in addition to a 2.5 pound Raichle Eiger boot on each foot) and proceed to hike 2 miles up and down the Cascade foothills around my home--again four or five times a week. Oh yes, I also go hiking, year around.
It's important for hiking, and especially backpacking, that we have strong lower back, upper back, and abdominal muscles, in addition to strong legs. Find exercises that strengthen those muscles. For example, a rowing machine--as well as a machine like the Health Rider--will work the back, leg, and ab muscles. For those of us who get bored sitting on a machine, get a bicycle and rowboat.
I have found, however, that lifting weights, machine workouts, jogging, etc., is appropriate and very helpful, but for some reason, the only activity that really keeps me in shape for alpine hiking, backpacking, and scrambling--which is what I do--is hiking. So how about you ? Find out what works for you and then JUST DO IT !
The Most Important Essential--Common Sense
- "Common Sense"--one of those abstract concepts that we use when talking to employees, students, and children, with the assumption that everyone understands what it means, when if fact, we don't. Well, here's what it means when I use it:
- Common-Sense Glossary: (from the Oxford Modern English Dictionary):
- Sense: (n) .....4.a/ quick or accurate appreciation, understanding, or instinct regarding a specific matter....b/ the habit of basing one's conduct on such instinct. 5/ practical wisdom or judgement, common sense; conformity to these....
- Common Sense: (n) sound practical sense, esp. in everyday matters.
- Practical: (adj) 1/ concerned with practice rather than theory. 2/ suited to use or action.....5/ concerned with what is actually possible.
- Pragmatism: (n) ......2/ a philosophy that evaluates assertions solely by their practical consequences and bearing on human interests.
- Intuition: (n) 1/ immediate apprehension by the mind or by a sense. 2/ immediate insight.
- Instinct: (n) b/....propensity in human beings to act without conscious intention; innate impulsion. 2/ unconscious skill; intuition.
- Sixth Sense: (n) ....facility giving intuitive or extrasensory knowledge.
The exercise of common-sense is a requirement for the entire "backcountry-experience life-cycle", from initial thoughts, thru actual planning, transportation to, execution of backcountry trip, and return trip home.
- Plan Carefully. Plan your backcountry trips, thoroughly, before you leave home. Be as knowledgeable about what lies ahead as physically possible, and you will be much better positioned to achieve and maintain a healthy attitude, perceived and actual security, as well as a darn good time. The following link gets into the details of planning out a trip:
The Trip Planner
- Communicate Your Plans to Friends & Family. Make a hardcopy of the destination and time table for your trip and give it to friends or family. Draw on a topographical map where you will be, how long you will be there, and when you should be back home. This may be your link to survival should you run into trouble in an isolated area. This is also covered in The Trip Planner page.
- Know When to Turn Around & Go Back. Follow your knowledge, training, and gut instincts (the "sixth sense"). If you are unsure about a traverse, a climb, a trail, exposure to weather--whatever--back off, live another day, and contemplate your alternatives. Select a different route; Pitch your tent and layover until the storm passes; Wait til morning when the river's water level is lower, before crossing, etc. Keep in mind, ignoring your "sixth sense" and pushing forward into a questionable situation might be challenging and macho, but it can also be called stupid and have deadly consequences. Remember, many of the climbers who've been killed on Everest were the victims of their own inability to turn around when their guts were telling them to do so.
- Listen to Your Body--Undress Before Overheat, Dress Before Chills--Drink Often--Eat Regularly.
Not only does our pyschological and spiritual being speak to us, but our physiological parts send us loud messages, as well.
Hypothermia is a real concern in the backcountry. It's a condition resulting from your body's core temperature dropping below normal. The symptoms you'd likely experience are lack of coordination, chills & shivering, slow speech, and acting out of character. It's important to recognize and even anticipate these early warning signs, and respond to them, accordingly. Several of the mild cases that I've seen resulted from persons exerting high-energy, getting wet with their own sweat, then getting chilled when they stop. For mild hypothermia, get the person into warm, dry conditions--clothes, tent, sleeping bag and provide and encourage consumption of warm drinks.
Hyperthermia is also a problem. It can occur, mainly in hot, dry summer temperatures, when your internal body heat can't be released fast enough and you overheat.
The Mountaineering First Aid book, suggested earlier, covers in detail, both hypo & hyperthermia. You can also go here for links which deal with both conditions:
Links for Hypothermia & Hyperthermia
I automatically put on a jacket when I stop, even if the sun is out. Once I dry off a bit and my body temperature stablizes, I can take off the jacket. The point is this, try to avoid dramatic body temperature swings, one way or the other. When you first start out on a hike, it's typical that you'll want to stop after about 15 minutes or so, to take a "clothes break". Take off your jacket or long underwear bottoms so that you don't overheat on the trail. When stopping for breaks, either (1) make the breaks short enough that you don't get chilled or (2) put some clothes on. Repeat this cycle of putting clothes on and taking clothes off, forever.
Drink much fluid, eat much food. Many times, I get so caught up in "truckin down the trail" that I forget to stop and eat and drink. On several occasions, I've experienced dehydration and got a little sick. I usually recognize the need to snack on the trail, though, as I start to lose energy after awhile, so I must grab a little snack to refuel. The point here is that it is critical to replace the fluids that are gushing out of your body, as you exercise, as well as a steady supply of nutrition, via snacks & meals, in order to maintain health & energy.
- Carry Gear That You Perceive Will Maintain Your High Level of Security: Determine the gear that YOU NEED to maintain your personal level of security and then seek out the smallest, lightest, highest-quality manifestation of that gear.
Don't be overly influenced by "lightweight gear freaks", but, also, for your own safety, avoid the "everything but the kitchen sink syndrome". Explore the equipment links below, then decide what makes you feel safe and comfortable, then start out with that as a baseline. As you become more experienced, you will discover that your gear configurations will evolve toward more efficiency and, hopefully, lighter weight. Remember, though, as you determine your gear needs, a too-large pack makes a person more vulnerable to falling down as well as to back, leg, knee, and foot injuries, and a too-small pack may compromise your personal security, due to lack of necessary gear. Read carefully the "CREED" section in the "Tips" link below.
- Strive for a Simple, Light Load on your back. A light, but efficient load, will allow you to have a more enjoyable time with energy left over to celebrate when you reach your destination. For additional packlight philosophy, go here:
- Know Your Requirements. Before embarking on a gear shopping trip, have your pockets full of information related to:
This information will be critical when talking tents, boots, clothes, backpacks, sleeping bags, and virtually all the other gear items you will need--some of which you don't even know you need, yet. Trust me, an experienced salesperson will ask about and use every one of the info items I mentioned above, and probably more.
- What kind of trips you will be taking:
- how many days ?
- how many miles ?
- in what kind of terrain--on trail, off trail ?
- at what altitude--desert, subalpine, alpine ?
- in what seasons--Summer, 3-Season, 4-Season
- in what kind of weather ?
- how many people--solo, 2-person, etc. ?
- Do you sleep hot or cold ?
- Do you rock & roll in your sleep ?
- Are you a heavy breather, in your sleep ?
- What's your torso measurement ?--(see gear planning link, below)
- What side of the bed do you get out of in the morning. (you'll probably want to get out of your sleeping bag on that side, also).
- Do you have weak hips or weak lumbar ? (most packs put majority of weight on hips--some put more weight on the lumbar region (my personal preference).
- When trying on hiking shoes and boots, take the socks you would wear during your backcountry adventures--as well as orthopedic inserts (orthodics). If you don't know what socks you'll be wearing, then that's where you should start. If you change thickness and design of sock subsequent to purchase, that good boot fit you work hard for, may be history.
- Shop at stores with reputable, experienced salespeople. This may surprise you, but my advise, if you are just starting out -- UNLESS YOU KNOW EXACTLY WHAT YOU NEED -- is to stay away from outdoor chain stores (you know who they are)!
My suggestion is to go to shops like Marmot, Wilderness Experience, Feathered Friends--all stores I frequent in my part of the world--and get help you can count on from experienced backcountry folks. Marmot and Feathered Friends also do mail order. Check your local area for the best outdoor shops. If the chain stores are all you have, then make darn sure you've done your homework--for your own good--and get a second and third opinion.
More and more I do my shopping over the internet. A lot of good quality shops on the net - for example, The Lightweight Gear shop. This is a great alternative especially if you have a good idea of your required specifications. Even it you don't, many online shops will work with you to ensure you get what you really need.
- Plan your gear inventory & purchases. Using the information that you just supplied yourself--from above, as well as knowledge you gain from studying the following four links and links on the "Gear Links" page--identify, as much as you can, the types and specifications of the gear you desire. This approach to acquiring gear will reduce your (1) dependence on sales people to figure out what you need and, (2) subsequent need to buy, sell, & buy gear multiple times before you get what you actually, really need.
- Consider three or four wheel drive:
- Strive to Lighten Your Load ! You don't need to be a "lightweight gear" neurotic to know that this makes sense. Here's some old methods and some new innovations intended to lighten the load. If you don't already know, every ounce is heavy, therefore, every ounce removed from your back, lightens your load. You might want to explore these pages before purchasing gear--there's some good weight-reduction to be had via acquisition of specific kinds of gear.
- Use a Checklist, like the one below, for (1) trip planning purposes and (2) ensuring that you've remembered everything.
- Know Your Gear. Acquiring the right gear is the first step. You must then gain a keen knowledge of how each piece of gear works, how it is assembled, and how to maintain it.
Practice using each gear item, before you leave home. Visualize having to repair each item in the field (and be prepared to do so). The more you know about your gear and the more comfortable you are with it, the more secure and comfortable you will be while on the trail.
Where to Go ?
Backcountry shops, bookstores, libraries all carry books that will provide information about hikes in your area, as well as in other areas. Also, a great way to learn about hikes is to join a hiking club. Not only will you learn about available hikes, but you'll meet people with the same interests as you. The internet is a good place to look--State Parks, National Forests, etc.
Here are some trail links:
Internet Discussion Forums provide a way to make international inquiries about hiking:
This is our own (and the original since 1996) backcountry forum. Especially look into the "Backcountry Beginners" forum for much help. You can ask questions here and make helpful contacts with seasoned backcountry travelers.
On The Trail
Understand the Backcountry Culture.
- Study the information found at the link, below. It will give you a good baseline of knowledge & tips for what is generally-accepted, ethical behavior & practices, in the backcountry, as well as provide helpful tips related to campsites, sanitation, pet dogs, and so on.
Walking on the Trail.
- Maintain an efficient posture, while walking on the trail. First of all, you need to make sure your pack is packed correctly-- (the Gear Planning & Purchasing page provides instruction on how to properly load a pack). Assuming your pack is relatively lightweight and properly packed, you should be able to walk only slightly leaning forward under the weight of the pack. Try to maintain the posture you would normally have while walking--head up; shoulders back; relaxed, swinging arms--in order to reduce muscle strain and make you a more efficient backpacker.
- Discover Your Hiking Pace ! This is very important. Everyone has a preferred pace, and to deviate from that pace is somewhat annoying, uncomfortable, and even injury producing. When first starting out, don't concentrate too much on your stride and pace, just do what comes naturally and comfortably. It's important that you hike at your own pace to maintain that comfort level. You're out there to have fun and achieve enjoyment, not to keep up with someone else. If you hike with a group--most groups, if properly guided, will allow for this, and even encourage this. Eventually, you may want to concentrate on quickening your pace or even slowing down. Over time, I have learned to comfortably quicken my pace or slow my pace, depending on the situation.
- Finding A Hiking Partner. You may have visions of yourself and your spouse or best friend truckin up a storm thru the mountains. If your goal is to hike with your spouse and/or best friend--and still be friends when its all over--then you must conform to the pace of the slowest person. That's the potentially annoying, uncomfortable part I previously mentioned. If your goal is to hike at your own pace, for as far and as long as you like, you, most likely, will need to seek out a hiking partner with similar, if not identical tendancies. If that's your wife or best friend, then lucky you. Hiking partners can be found thru hiking club activities & newsletters, acquaintances, and even over backpacking bulletin boards like this one:
- Watch where you're going. Especially nowadays, many trails are in a bad way--roots, ruts, wash-outs, rocks. Keep your eyes and mind on the tread in front of you. Plan each step, carefully. Your eyes, mind, and foot placement must be in coordination with your feet. That is why its important to travel at your naturally comfortable pace. If you go too fast, your foot placement may become uncoordinated Accidents can occur--and do. Even on well-kept trails, footing can be treacherous when wet, especially. Be careful going downhill on wet tread. Use your walking stick for added support and stability (see The Walking Stick) page.
- Drink much, eat much, and maintain a stable body heat, as previously mentioned. When you plan your daily mileage, take into consideration water, fuel, & clothes breaks. Also take into consideraton the terrain you'll be traveling in and make the appropriate clothing and supplies readily available in or on your pack. If the garments, sunscreen, food, etc. are readily available, you'll be more likely to stop and use them-- as opposed to the hassle of digging around in the pack looking for things.
- Rest occasionally. Whenever you or someone in your group gets weary, it's important to stop and rest. It's actually best if you rest before anyone gets weary. A tired backpacker, is a backpacker who is more prone to injury. When planning your daily mileage, be flexible. Be prepared to stop for the day when you and/or your group gets weary and wants to stop, rather that pushing on to a pre-determined goal and risk someone getting injured.
- Protect yourself from sunburn. Carry and use hats with wide brims which protect the eyes and face and with shrouds that cover ears and neck. Frequently apply sunblock--at least, spf 15-- in the mountains, try spf 25 or higher.
- Prevent & treat blisters. If your boots fit correctly, you'll be less likely to encounter blisters. A good boot fit will be snug in the heel area and long enough that toes don't jam up against the front of the boot when going downhill. Also, if you're wearing socks like Thorlo Hiking, with padded bottoms. Those are the three areas in which blisters occur the most. If you have a history of blisters, then apply moleskin or 2nd skin or whatever to that area prior to hitting the trail. If already on the trail, stop immediately upon feeling a "hot" spot. When you feel the hot spot, the blister is already forming. If you stop right away and apply moleskin to the reddened area, you'll most likely have little more that a sore spot for a couple days. If you don't stop and take care of it, it could develop into a condition too painful to walk on.
If a full-blown blister does occur, you can drain it by lancing it at its base and then applying first, an antibacterial gel, and second, a cushioned, adhesive bandage. Another solution, is to leave it, as is, undrained, and cover it as follows: cut a section of 1/8" thick molefoam which is larger than the blister by 1/2" on each side. Then cut a hole in the middle of the molefoam a little larger than the blister and place it over the blister. Next, Cut a piece of moleskin the same size as the molefoam and place over the top of the molefoam. You've now encased and protected the blister from further abrasion. You should be able to continue on your journey.
- Bugs. You'll have to deal with bugs, one way or another. Especially biting black flies and mosquitoes.
There are many bug-off solutions--juices, creams, gels, sprays--most of which are DEET based. You can also purchase bug-net clothes. This is probably the main reason that I carry a tent. If there were no bugs in the world, I'd be happy carrying, at most, a bivy for many of the outings I go on. There's no magic solution, you just have to discover a way to deal with it.
- Ticks and Lyme disease. Lyme disease has become a serious problem and one of the main ways it is transmitted to humans is by Ticks (Mice also, so stay away from them, as well). In tick country, make sure feet, legs, arms are covered with clothing. Wear light-colored clothing so ticks will be more visible. Check often for ticks on clothes and in hair and on exposed skin. If you do find a tick embedded in your skin the recommendation is to remove it immediately by pinching your skin with special tick-removing tweezers just below the head of the tick and lift the tick straight up and out. It is very important to not squeeze or twist the tick during the removal process since this can cause the tick to regurgitate germs into the wound. Also, do not try to burn or otherwise harrass the tick because it may burrow deeper. After removal, apply first aid to the wound, and it wouldn't hurt to save the speciman and take it and yourself to see a physician, upon your return to civilization.
- Carry & know how to use map & compass. Even if you always stay on the trail and have no intentions of leaving it, it is important to carry a map of the terrain that you're in. For a brief moment, you may not be paying attention or may get distracted and, consequently, take an incorrect fork in the trail, the tread of which gradually fades away. You turn around and see no trail--you're disoriented and probably lost. In my opinion, the map is the most important tool you have because even if you don't know the intricacies of using a compass, the map (assuming you know how to read it) will allow you get re-oriented. You can climb to a high place pick out some outstanding land features then find them on the map (or vice versa) in order to approximate where you're at. With this knowledge you'll have an easier time finding your way back to the trail. If you know how to read the compass--which you should-- you'll have an even better chance of finding your way back. No matter how careful you are, if you're out there long enough it will happen to you, too. Be prepared.
- Be familiar with & Pay attention to, the terrain you're in. Before you venture into an area, become familiar with the terrain by studying your map. As you travel, pay attention, stay aware of where you are--don't just blindly follow the trail. Periodically, stop, turn around and look behind you. See if you can approximate where you're at on the map. Stay alert, don't space out, and you'll stay found.
- Stay on the trail. Use your map to become familiar with the trail, including intersections with other trails. It's not uncommon to come across side trails which are well traveled by wild animals, climbers, fisherman, and soon-to-be-lost hikers. Again, pay attention to the map, pay attention to the trail. Stay on the right one. If you have a question about which way to go, refer to your present location on the map, pull out your compass, take a bearing and follow the appropriate trail. Not all trails are well-defined, be prepared to use map, compass, and common sense to validate the direction you travel.
- Keep track of Each Other. If in a group, the rule of thumb is don't lose sight of the person in front of and/or behind you. If each person has this attitude and practice, persons will have a better chance of staying found; those who become lost can be retrieved before they become "too lost"; and injured individuals can be quickly located and administered to.
- If lost, don't panic. Once you realize that you're lost, stay calm, relax, and evaluate the situation. Stay where you are at, continuing on may just take you farther from help. Use your emergency whistle to signal distress, or if you don't have your whistle, make loud noise however you can. Get to the highest place in the immediate area, and using your basic map and compass skills approximate your location, and begin working your way back to the trail, continuing to make noise, until you are found, again.
Hiking & Backpacking is really a four season activity. My observation is that there are three seasonal categories of backpackers--those that go out only in Summer; those that go out in three-seasons; and those that go out all year around. A person can backpack in the same locations, for the better part of three seasons, with pretty much the same gear (see Seasonal Gear Lists link above).
In Winter and, potentially, in early Spring and late Fall, there are other considerations in terms of gear, technique, and places to go (and not to go).
Whenever snow and ice is present, a hiker/backpacker needs, at a minium, an ice axe and the knowledge of how to use it. From late Fall, through much of the Winter, snowshoes are a necessity. From late Winter thru early Summer, the snow pack generally hardens and snowshoes are no longer required, but the ice axe and sturdy boots continue to be a requirement. One needs to know how to kick or chop steps in hard snow (sorry, running shoes can't do this), how to self arrest with the axe (stop yourself from sliding down the mountain), and, for your own fun, how to glissade (sliding down the mountain on your bottom using the ice axe as a rudder/brake). If you want to become a successful year-round backpacker, you must become skilled using snowshoes and ice-axe.
For further, more detailed information on Winter Hiking and Backpacking, spend some time at the following link: